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Hyalomma marginatum.jpg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hyalomma is a genus of hard-bod­ied ticks com­mon in Asia, Eu­rope, and North Africa. They are also found in South­ern Africa.

Hyalomma orig­i­nated from Iran or the south­ern part of the for­mer So­viet Union and spread into Asia, the Mid­dle East, south­ern Eu­rope, and Africa (Larry S. Roberts, 2009).

Hyalomma are larger in size and do not have pro­tec­tive shields (in­dis­tinct fes­toons), but have eyes and banded legs. Hyalomma species are dif­fi­cult to iden­tify due to their hy­bridiza­tion and ge­netic and mor­pho­log­i­cal vari­a­tions, caused by harsh en­vi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions and lack of food sources. Hyalomma species are the only ticks to live in such harsh desert con­di­tions. With few hosts avail­able, they are re­quired to be ac­tive as soon as a po­ten­tial host is sensed.

Adult Hyalomma can bite hu­mans and trans­mit se­ri­ous pathogens. Im­ma­ture (nymph) Hyalomma usu­ally feed on birds, ro­dents, and hares and can be the cause of viral dis­ease and rick­ettsias. Nymphs are often trans­mit­ted from one place to an­other by mi­grat­ing birds.

For ex­am­ple, a mi­grat­ing bird car­ry­ing a Hyalomma marginatum nymph can cause Crimean-Congo he­m­or­rhagic fever (Larry S.​Roberts, 2009). Hyalomma species can also trans­mit rick­ettsias like Siber­ian tick ty­phus, Bou­ton­neuse fever, and Q fever (Larry S.​Roberts, 2009).

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